Salvia hispanica demonstrated to be a source of protein fractions with anticancer activity. The effect of the protein fractions <1, 1-3, and 3-5 kDa, obtained by ultrafiltration of the S. hispanica hydrolysate, was evaluated on the cellular viability of four cancer cell lines (MCF-7, Caco2, PC-3, and HepG2) and on human fibroblasts (hFB) at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mg/ml). The protein fractions did not show cytotoxic effects on hFB. The protein fraction <1 kDa at 1 mg/ml showed the highest statistical effect on the cellular viability of all evaluated cancer lines; thus, its amino acid sequence was analyzed. From the multicriteria decision analysis of the peptide sequences obtained by mass spectrometry, the peptide KLKKNL with potential anticancer activity was selected. In conclusion, protein fractions could represent a therapeutic option for cancer treatment. However, further investigations are necessary to establish conclusive arguments.
Practical Application The work of this article is based on the background of the increasing potential of peptides for the treatment of chronic diseases. The results of this study present peptides of low molecular weight, obtained from chia seeds, as a potential adjuvant option for cancer treatment.